Pk Wisdom

How CPU are Design and Built

Just a human being cannot function without a brain, such a computer cannot function without a central processing unit. It is a brain that guides the human body to function. Without a central processing unit, your system is like a abnormal human being. The central processing unit operates on the same principle. Now let’s take a look at how the central processing unit works.

  1. Computer Architecture
Instruction set architectures

Caching

Pipelines

Hyperthreading

Instruction set architectures

This word guesses what his job will be, looking at it from the figure.

High Level Language (C++, Java, Python)
Assembly Language
Machine Language

The computer never understands English Directly. The Computer language is 0 and 1 which means ON and OFF. Instruction set also known as ISA. The instruction set depends on these things.

 Registers

 Memory architecture

 Interrupt

 Exception handling

 External I/O

 Addressing modes

 Instructions

Examples of instruction set

ADD

COMPARE

IN

JUMP

JUMP IF

LOAD

OUT

STORE

Caching

It temporarily saves data. It is capable of processing very high speed data. This makes your data very effective.

Examples of hardware caches

CPU cache

GPU cache (Graphics processing units)

DSPs (Digital signal processors)

 

Pipelines

In computing, this is also known as data pipeline. This allows data to be stored and run.  This is a technique in which many tasks can be performed at the same time. Pipeline enhances the ability to work.

Types of Pipeline

Arithmetic Pipeline

Instruction Pipeline

Arithmetic Pipeline

This operation is very useful for floating points like X = R*2^b and Y = K*2^a.  It now operate in four stages.

Compare the exponents of Computing.

Align the Computing.

Add or subtract Computing

Produce the result of Computing
  1. CPU Design Process

This design is accomplished in the following points.

Schematics

Transistors

Logic gates

Clocking

Logic gates

Logic gates are building blocks of any digital system. Logic gate plays a very important role. Now we look at their types.

AND Gate

OR Gate

NOT Gate

NAND Gate

NOR Gate

XOR Gate

XNOR Gate

Half Adder

Full Adder

N-Bit Parallel Adder

N-Bit Parallel Subtractor

Half Subtractors

Full Subtractors

Multiplexers

Demultiplexers

Decoder

Encoder

Transistors

These are the building blocks of the integrated system. They are numbered in the million in the modern central processing unit. A transistor in PC processors regularly signals on or off. Be that since it could, transistors will in like manner alteration the level of a la mode being sent. For instance, a keyboard could join an advancement of transistors which might be utilized to frame bigger the sign stream. The broadened sign makes AN exceptional data yield. In lightweight of their base attempt and high reliableness, transistors have generally recorded vacuum tubes for data escalation capacities

There are two types of transistors on a modern CPU

 P-type
 N-type

Clocking

The clock is similar to the original clock, but its working style is different. CPU can perform per second. It has to do with system speed and this speed is also called clock rate. Clock speeds are expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). Intel 80286 microprocessor requires 20 cycles to multiply two numbers. Expansion buses also have clock speeds.

NOTE: There is a chance of error; if you see any errors please email.

Kashif Ramzan

1 comment

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